Early iron age populations of southern africa essay

Quaternary International 73— Many spoke a form of Bantu; many forms of geometric and schematic rock art are found throughout south and eastern Africa.

Early iron age populations of southern africa essay

Google Scholar Katanekwa, N. This is debated in archaeology, where there are proponents of demic expansion, cultural adoption-diffusion, and demic diffusion explanations [9] , [10] , [11] , [12] , [13] , [14] , [15]. Other major African rivers were not considered relevant for this initial study. Where conditions for agriculture were favourable, such as in the Tugela River valley in the east, villages grew to house several hundred people. Radiocarbon dates for Zambia — Current Anthropology — Context and direct dating of pre-European livestock in the upper Seacow River valley. Excavations at Silver Leaves: A final report. Excavations at Geduld and the appearance of early domestic stock in Namibia. Archaeological and linguistic reconstructions of history in East Africa. Google Scholar Yellen, J. Google Scholar Peters, L. But iron smelting technology is a smelly, dangerous one. American Anthropologist — Radiocarbon —

In terms of settlement choices, Vansina [16] suggests that forest-savanna ecotones were especially favourable for the type of root and tree crop cultivation practiced by the western Bantu-speakers.

Pushed back into marginal areas, they were forced to live by cattle raiding, justifying in colonial eyes their systematic eradication.

iron age in africa pdf

Several hypotheses are explored. Excavations at Silver Leaves: A final report. Journal of African History — South African Archaeological Bulletin 23— Hilltop graves contained lavish burial goods, including a carefully crafted gold rhinoceros and evidence of specialized crafts such as bone and ivory working.

Analysis of site stratigraphy and formation processes using patterns of pottery sherd dispersion.

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Over the following century, numerous vessels made their way around the South African coast, but the only direct African contacts came with the bands of shipwreck survivors who either set up camp in the hope of rescue or tried to make their way northward to Portuguese settlements in present-day Mozambique.

It has not been established whether these new communities were inhabited by invaders or reflected the diffusion of new knowledge to existing populations.

In Ehret, C.

impacts of iron technology in africa

Download preview PDF. We explore these alternative scenarios below, and also introduce a less constrained way of exploring the wider parameter space that enables some of their elements to be combined.

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African Iron Age